graduate program affiliations

  • BISI-BISI-Molecular & Cellular Biology (MOCB)

research interests

Airway biology; respiratory virus-host interactions; antiviral response in the airway; spatiotemporal dynamics of infection; tissue engineering and primary cell systems.


recent publications




Stevens K, Scull MA, Chaturvedi RR, Fortin CL, Xiao JW, Ramanan V, Fung C, de Jong YP, Chen CS, Rice CM, Bhatia SN. In situ expansion of engineered human liver tissue.  In revision, Science Translational Medicine



Scull MA, Schneider WM, Flatley B, Hayden R, Fung C, Jones C, van de Belt M, Penin F, Rice CM. (2015) The N-terminal Helical Region of the Hepatitis C Virus p7 Ion Channel Protein Is Critical for Infectious Virus Production. PLOS Pathogens 11(11): e1005297.


March S, Ramanan V, Trehan K, Ng S, Galstian A, Gural N, Scull MA, Shlomai A, Mota M, Fleming HE, Khetani SR, Rice CM, Bhatia SN. (2015) Micropatterned Coculture of Primary Human Hepatocytes and Supportive Cells for the Study of Hepatotropic Pathogens.  Nature Protocols, 10(12);2027-2053.


Tietjen I, Ntie-Kang F, Mwimanzi P, Onguene PA, Scull MA, Ogundaini AO, Meva’a LM, Abegaz BM, Rice CM, Andrae-Marobela K, Brochman MA, Brumme Z, Fedida D. (2015) Screening of the Pan-African Natural Product Library (p-ANAPL) Identifies Ixoratannin A-2 and Boldine as Novel Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication.  PLOS ONE, 10(4):e0121099.


Scull MA, Shi C, de Jong YP, Gerold G, Ries M, von Schaewen M, Donovan BM, Labitt RN, Horwitz JA, Hrebikova G, Xiao JW, Flatley B, Fung C, Chiriboga L, Walker CM, Evans DT, Rice CM, Ploss A. (2015) Suppression of the Host Immune Response Enables Persistent Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaque Hepatocytes and Simianized Mice.  Hepatology, 62(1):57-67.


Dittmann M, Scull MA*, Hoffmann HH*, Gilmore RH, Bell K, Ciancanelli M, Wilson SJ, Crotta S, Yu Y, Flatley B, Xiao J, Casanova J, Wack A, Bieniasz PD, Rice CM. (2015) Protease Inhibitor SERPINE1/PAI-1 Shapes the Extracellular Environment to Prevent Influenza A Virus Maturation. Cell, 160(4):631-43.  



Scull MA*, Ramanan V*, Sheahan T, Rice CM, Bhatia SN. (2014) New Methods in Tissue Engineering: Improved Models for Viral Infection.  Annual Review of Virology, 1:475-99.



Vogt A, Scull MA, Friling T, Horwitz JA, Donovan BM, Dorner M, Gerold G, Labitt R, Rice CM, Ploss A. (2013) Recapitulation of the Hepatitis C Virus Life-cycle in Engineered Murine Cell Lines. Virology, 444(1-2):1-11.



Schaap-Nutt A, Liesman R, Bartlett E, Scull M, Collins P, Pickles R, Schmidt A. (2012) Human Parainfluenza Virus Serotypes Differ in Their Kinetics of Replication and Cytokine Secretion in Human Tracheobronchial Airway Epithelium. Virology, 433(2):320-8.



Roberts KL, Shelton H, Scull M, Pickles R and Barclay WS. (2011) Lack of Transmission of a Human Influenza Virus with Avian Receptor Specificity Between Ferrets is not due to Decreased Viral Shedding, but Rather a Lower Infectivity In Vivo. J Gen Virol, 92(Pt 8):1822-31.


Allen IC, Moore CB, Schneider M, Lei Y, Davis B, Scull MA, Gris D, Roney K, Zimmermann AG, Bowzard JB, Ranjan P, Monroe K, Pickles RJ, Sambhara S, Ting J. (2011) NLRX1 Protein Attenuates Inflammatory Responses to Infection by Interfering with the RIG-I-MAVS and TRAF6-NF-kB Signaling Pathways. Immunity, 34(6):854-65.



Scull M*, Schaap-Nutt A*, Schmidt A, Murphy B, Pickles R. (2010) Growth Restriction of an Experimental Live Attenuated Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 Vaccine in Human Ciliated Airway Epithelium In Vitro Parallels Attenuation in African Green Monkeys.  Vaccine, 28: 2788-98.  


Schaap-Nutt A, D’Angelo C, Scull M, Amaro-Carambot E, Nishio M, Pickles R, Collins P, Murphy B, Schmidt A. (2010) Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 2 V protein Inhibits Interferon Production and Signaling and is Required for Replication in Non-human Primates.  Virology, 387: 285-98.


Ayora-Talavera G, Shelton H.A., Scull M.A., Ren J.Y., Jones I.M., Pickles R, Barclay W. (2009) Mutants of H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin Require Multiple Nucleotide Transversions to Bind Human Tracheal Cells.   PLOS ONE, 4: e7836.


Prior to 2010

Kesimer M, Scull M, Brighton B, DeMaria G, Burns K, O’Neal W, Pickles R, Sheehan J. (2009) Characterization of Exosome-like Vesicles Released from Human Tracheobronchial Ciliated Epithelium: A Possible Role in Innate Defense.   FASEB J., 23: 1858-68.


Scull M, Gillim-Ross L, Santos C, Roberts K, Subbarao K, Barclay W, Pickles R. (2009) Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways. PLoS Pathogens, 5: e1000424.


Allen I, Scull M, Moore C, Holl E, Taxman D, Guthrie E, Pickles R, Ting J. (2009) The NLRP3 Inflammasome is Essential for the Regulation of Host Innate Immune Responses to Influenza A Virus Infection. Immunity, 30:556-65.


Bartlett E, Cruz A, Esker J, Castano A, Schomacker H, Surman S, Hennessey M, Boonyaratanakornkit J, Pickles R, Collins P, Murphy B, Schmidt A. (2008) Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 C Proteins are Non-essential Proteins that Inhibit the Host Interferon and Apoptotic Responses and are Required for Efficient Replication in Non-human Primates.  J Virol, 82: 8965-77.


Hennessey M*, Bartlett E*, Skiadopoulous M, Schmidt A, Collins P, Murphy B, Pickles R. (2008) The Role of Interferon in the Replication of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Wild Type and Mutant Viruses in Human Ciliated Airway Epithelium. J Virol, 82: 8059-70.


Sumpter B, Dunham R, Gordon S, Engram J, Hennessey M, Kinter A, Paiardini M, Cervasi B, Klatt N, McClure H, Milush J, Staprans S, Sodora D, Silvestri G. (2007) Correlates of Preserved CD4+ T Cell Homeostasis During Natural, Non-pathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Sooty Mangabeys: Implications for AIDS Pathogenesis.  J Immunology, 178: 1680-1691.


Kinter A, Hennessey M, Bell A, Kern S, Lin Y, Daucher M, Planta M, McGlaughlin M, Jackson R, Ziegler S, Fauci AS. (2004) CD25+CD4+ Regulatory T Cells from the Peripheral Blood of Asymptomatic HIV-infected Individuals Regulate CD4+ and CD8+ HIV-specific T Cell Immune Responses In Vitro and Are Associated with Favorable Markers of Disease Status.  J Exp Med, 200: 331-43.


*these authors contributed equally to this study



Scull MA and Ploss A. (2012) Exiting from Uncharted Territory: Hepatitis C Virus Assembles in Mouse Cell Lines. Hepatology, 55(2):645-48.


Ralston R, Jacobson I and Scull M. (2011) The Conundrum of Relapse in STAT-C Therapy: Does HCV Play the Red Queen or Rip Van Winkle? Sem in Liver Disease, 31(4):410-19.


Scull MA and Rice CM. (2010) A Big Role for Small RNAs in Influenza Virus Replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107: 11153-4.




B.S. Duke University, 2001

Ph.D. The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2009


Postdoctoral research – The Rockefeller University, 2010-2016